attribute-based standard A light vehicle emissions standard where the level of the standard varies with an attribute of the vehicle (typically vehicle mass or size).
emissions intensity A measure of the emissions associated with a unit of output; for example, the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by a vehicle over a given driving distance, measured in grams of carbon dioxide per kilometre (g CO2/km). There is a direct relationship between fuel efficiency and emissions intensity for any given fuel. Different fuels have different emissions intensities.
emissions intensity of light vehicles (measured) An estimate of actual, or ‘real-world’, new light vehicle emissions intensity. These estimates tend to be higher than ‘tested’ emissions intensity.
emissions intensity of light vehicles (tested) ‘Test cycle’ readings of new light vehicle emissions intensity, resulting from laboratory testing. Generally differs from measured emissions intensity (see above).
emissions reductions The act or process of limiting or restricting greenhouse gas emissions.
fleet-average emissions The average emissions intensity of all vehicles in a fleet. Fleet-average emissions standards typically apply to new light vehicles.
footprint The size of a vehicle as determined by the product of the vehicle track width and the wheelbase (distance between the two axles).
light commercial vehicle A motor vehicle that has a utility or panel van-type body. Includes pickup trucks, vans and small buses that carry more than eight passengers.
light vehicles All motor vehicles under 3.5 tonnes gross vehicle mass, including passenger vehicles, sports utility vehicles (SUVs) and light commercial vehicles, but excluding motorcycles.
light vehicle emissions standard A regulatory tool that sets emissions intensity targets for new light vehicles.
limit curve A mathematical relationship between an attribute, such as size or mass, of vehicles and their tested emissions intensity, which defines the required average emissions intensity.
multipliers Compliance credits awarded to liable entities under some light vehicle emissions standards, multipliers are typically awarded to vehicles that satisfy low-emissions benchmarks or use specific technologies or fuels claimed to reduce CO2 emissions relative to conventional vehicles.
national average target A fleet-average emissions target for Australia’s new light vehicle fleet, expressed in grams of carbon dioxide per kilometre.
net individual impact The net impact of any increase in the purchase price of a vehicle due to standards, minus the savings from reduced fuel use over the period of ownership, compared with business-as-usual (BAU).
net private impact The sum of net individual impacts across all motorists. If the lifetime fuel savings exceed the increase in upfront costs, the standard has ‘net private benefits’.
net social impact The value of fuel savings and emissions reductions to the public, adjusted for the technology costs and other changes necessary for vehicle suppliers to meet the standards.
off-cycle credits Compliance credits awarded to liable entities under some light vehicle emissions standards, off-cycle credits recognise technologies that deliver emissions reductions that are not measured by the test cycle, such as efficient vehicle air conditioners.
passenger vehicles Motor vehicles principally designed for the carriage of up to eight adults. Includes cars and SUVs.
test cycle A protocol to allow repeatable and comparable measurement of exhaust emissions for different engines or vehicles. Test cycles specify the conditions under which the engine or vehicle is operated during the emission test.
vehicle fuel efficiency The amount of fuel consumed by a vehicle over a given driving distance, expressed in litres per 100 kilometres (L/100 km).

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